Philophthalmus gralli

Philophthalmus gralli, otherwise known as the Oriental Avian Eye Fluke, is a type of zoonotic trematode which invades the conjunctival sac of the chicken's eye. Either around the lachrymal glands or under/on the surface of the nictitating membrane. The presence of adult flukes in the orbit causes conjunctivitis, keratitis, watery discharge, and mild edema.

Hosts: P. gralli are found mainly in avian hosts worldwide. However, human cases have been reported.



  • Order: Plagiorchiida
  • Family: Platyhelminthes
  • Genus: Philophthalmus


  • birds
  • humans

Associated Diseases