Avian metapneumovirus

Avian Metapneumoviruses, also referred to as Avian Rhinotracheitis Virus, cause a variety of disease syndromes, depending on the bird species and virus type (types A, B, C, and D). Infections with type A and B viruses cause Swollen Head Syndrome, an upper respiratory disease of chickens.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis of metapneumoviruses in both turkeys and chickens is usually based on one of two ways:
  • Detection of specific antibodies by ELISA in nonvaccinated birds with a recent history of respiratory disease.
  • Detection of avian metapneumovirus genomic sequences by molecular tests such as RT-PCR in acute respiratory disease cases.



  • Order: Mononegavirales
  • Family: Paramyxoviridae
  • Genus: Metapneumovirus


  • chickens
  • turkeys
  • ducks